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Saturday, September 21, 2013

Human Genetic Engineering

What, Why and How?

What exactly is human genetic engineering (HGE or HGM)? It´s a simple question with a complex answer. According to the Association of Reproductive Health Professionals (ARHP), HGM is a process by which scientists and medical professionals alter the genetic makeup, or DNA, in a living human cell. Ideally, HGM would be used to fix defective genes that cause diseases and other genetic complications.

In one method of altering the genes of living cells, scientists insert a new gene into a virus-like organism. This organism is then allowed to enter the cells and insert the new gene into the genome. Human genetic engineering uses two applications to do this: somatic and germline. It is important to note the distinction between these two applications.

Somatic engineering (from the Greek word “soma,” which means “body”) targets specific genes in specific organs and tissues without affecting the genes in the eggs or sperm (depending upon the gender of the person). The aim of this type of human genetic engineering is to treat or cure an existing condition. It does not alter the individual´s entire genetic makeup as a report for the Genetics and Public Policy Center explains. [Consequently noted in  "Brave New World"   "Soma" is used in the form of a Pill. See audiobook:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oESDhaKzoMQ Part 1]

The other type of human genetic engineering is germline, which targets the genes in eggs, sperm, or embryos in very early stages of development. This means that the genetic modifications that take place affect every cell created afterwards in the developing embryo´s body. Germline HGM also means that the modifications are passed on to all future generations if the individual goes on to have offspring. Obviously, germline HGM tends to be more controversial because the introduction of the gene alters future reproduction, whereas somatic HGM only affects the individual on which it is performed.

Finally, cloning can be considered as a third method of HGM. The US Department of Energy´s genomics website explains that there are three main types of cloning: recombinant DNA technology or DNA cloning, reproductive cloning, and therapeutic cloning. DNA cloning is the transfer of a DNA fragment from one organism to a self-replicating genetic element in order for the DNA to replicate itself in a foreign host cell. Reproductive cloning, on the other hand, is used to generate an organism that has the same nuclear DNA as another currently or previously existing organism (think of Dolly the sheep). Finally, therapeutic cloning — also known as embryo cloning — involves the production of human embryos for use in research.

The Controversy
On February 13, 2013, experts debated whether the US should ban specifically prenatal engineering. Livescience.com reported about this debate over HGM as the concern turned from empowering parents to give their children the best start possible to creating designer babies who may encounter genetic problems as a result of the genetic engineering of humans.

The ARHP noted that though many assume that germline engineering is necessary to allow parents to avoid passing on deficient DNA, other options do exist, including adoption, gamete and embryo donation, and even pre-implantation diagnosis and selection. The latter allows couples to have a child that is genetically related to both parents yet does not carry the genetic disease of concern.
A number of experts have focused on the possible unknown consequences of human genetic engineering and highlight the problems created by plant and animal genetic modifications. In the case of mishaps in plant or animal genetic experiments, scientists are able to discard the failed subjects, whereas doing so with a human who has been genetically engineered would be considered highly unethical.

Those in support of human genetic engineering often believe that parents should have the power to ensure that their children have a healthy life. On this side of the debate, the focus has often been on the protection of the unborn child. And many respond to the argument that HGM is dangerous and uncertain by pointing out that reproduction itself is uncertain and often leads to congenital diseases and death. 

Another common ethical concern is the fear that human genetic engineering might lead to eugenics — the deliberate attempt to improve the human race through artificial genetic selection or selective breeding. Although the idea of eugenics calls to mind for many the horrors of the Nazi regime, both sides of this debate have legitimate arguments highlighting both the pros and cons of attempting to create a stronger, healthier race of human beings. [Remember Hitler's "Master Race" of Ayran's?]

Both technologically and morally, human genetic engineering has a number of unanswered questions. 

Here are some of the main questions raised in the ongoing debate:

  1. Who is legally the mother or father of a clone? Most countries determine parentage by genetic or adoptive relationships.
  2. Does every human own his or her DNA along with the right to sell it?
  3. Should anyone be allowed to make a financial profit from the genetic material of another?
Moral/Ethical Concerns
  1. Is cloning the equivalent of ’playing God’?
  2. Does every human have the right to reproduce regardless of circumstances if the price is right?
  3. Who has the right, if any, to clone a deceased person?
  4. Do clones have souls?
  5. Reproductive cloning would diminish the idea of uniqueness. It would violate the widely held convictions concerning human individuality and freedom, and could lead to devaluation of clones in comparison with non-clones.
Scientific/Technological Issues
  1. Veteran practitioners of mammal cloning in other species have serious concerns about the means to be used and losses that will be incurred along the way to human cloning.
  2. Spontaneously aborted clones are abnormally large.
  3. Within a few weeks of birth, half the cloned cows and sheep die due to slight and unforeseeable flaws in organs and tissues.